By MARCO KLEIMANS, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Mentor: Alexander Roslyakov (Ph.D., Sociology)
Acknowledgment: Ms. Argine Safari (Pascack Valley High School Hillsdale, New Jersey, USA) for help in the arrangement of field surveys in the USA
By CAMDEN CARMICHAEL, Apex, North Carolina, the United States
By IMANI BECKETT, Los Angeles, California, the USA
Okun’s Law is an empirically observed relationship between changes in unemployment and changes in national output. This experiment used quarterly unemployment, GNP, and GDP data between 2000-2016 to find if Okun's Law held in the 21st century. Since studies supported the theory that the relationship held up in recent times, the hypothesis was that Okun’s Law would hold in the 21st century. A regression analysis was done on the data to see how much it fit with the equation y=1-0.4x, where y is the change in the unemployment rate and x is the change in output. Overall, the data did not fit into the equation when GNP or GDP was the output, from there I concluded that Okun's Law did not hold in the 21st century.
Read more here: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6fYIQxjoVuTaTFFTmdFM0tRdE0/view?usp=sharing
Works cited: https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B6fYIQxjoVuTWDVyTmswbGVjd1E
By ZACK LIGHT, Ridgefield, USA
Stanford Summer High School College
Professor: Robert Leeson
Teaching Assistants: Kevin Hoan Nguyen and Guido Alejo Martirena
By JIAXUAN LU, China
Advisor: Minxia Zhang
First prize, Boxue History Paper Competition
During the second industrial revolution, scientists invented numerous means of transportation, such as aircraft, automobiles and tanks. The prevalence of these novel vehicles in the beginning of twentieth century accelerated the development of the oil industry because operating them required petroleum, one of the rarest but most powerful fuels at that time. The subsequent fierce competition for petroleum, as a result of its scarcity, caused the great warfare in the 1930s. Petroleum was one of the most essential factors that determined whether Germany and Japan could triumph over the Allies and propagate their ideologies throughout the world. Some historians, such as Yehuda Bauer, consider that World War Two was a war caused by the clash of ideologies. Other political scientists, such as Robert Paxton, believe that World War Two was caused by unfair treaties after World War One, such as the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. Their hypotheses come from superficial facts: in the European theater of World War Two, Germany and Italy carved spheres of influence; in the Pacific theater, Japan desired to become a hegemonic power in Asia. Their focus on ideology and nationalisms are correct but neglect one of the most important causes, economics. Specifically speaking, it was petroleum. For the sake of petroleum, the separated theaters of Asia and Europe connected with one another as Germany attacked both France and USSR, and Japan attacked both China and the US. Unfortunately, the core conflicts of this war were still overshadowed by the conflicts of ideology after the failure of the Axis. It is only through exploring petroleum in World War II that we can truly understand German and Japanese strategy during a war heightened by ideologies and nationalism.
By YUNZHI PAN, Beijing, China
Pan delivered a presentation on the subject at the Speaker Series during the Yale Young Global Scholars (Politics, Law and Economics) Program, 2016
In recent decades, African immigrants has been arriving in large numbers in Guangzhou, a southern port city in China. Current literature on African immigrant communities in Guangzhou present mixed assessments regarding their status in the host society. Many scholars focus on the positive impacts brought by African immigrants, such as their roles as connecting “bridges” in Sino-African trade and cultural interactions. Nevertheless, African immigrants face challenges when they seek inclusion into the mainstream Chinese society due to their often illegal status, social isolation and periods of ethnic discords with the Chinese. The study of African immigrants in Guangzhou is important in thinking about the city’s growing diversity and globalization as well as filling in the relative lack of scholarship in the field. As African immigrants’ presence in Guangzhou grows increasingly significant, the local government as well as individuals need to work together to ensure that the relationship between the local Chinese and African immigrants progress in a cooperative and positive direction.
By MARGARET HEINZ, East Dundee, Illinois, the USA
By HANI CHOKSI, Brampton, Canada
After graduating from high school, students are expected to make a vital decision about what they want to pursue as a career and even more importantly, how they want to pursue it. There are four main pathways that are considered while making this choice – College, University, Apprenticing, and directly joining the workforce. Many believe that the key to a successful future is attending a post-secondary institution and getting a degree, and also that simply by doing so one will instantly land a job in their desired field of work and live a financially stable life. This may have stood true in the past but with the skyrocketing tuition, the stress, and the thousands of other people getting similar degrees, the value of post-secondary education is on the decline.
By ANJALI BHAVAN, New Delhi, India
Worldwide, millions of women are subjected to the practice of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) every year, every month, every day. This practice of cutting up female genitalia for a variety of reasons either around birth or puberty violates child and women rights to their very core and has consequences, both immediate and long-term, on the mental, physical and emotional health and well-being of many women across the world—even claiming the lives of many women and children, who die from the pain or subsequent onset of sepsis or reproductive illnesses. Such mutilation is steeped in tradition, religion and culture, often attributed to religion and performed as a rite of purification, and this superstition is passed on for generations, thus perpetrating a vicious cycle. This research aims to assess this practice—that is, delve on its history, both social and cultural, the current scenario and the impact of such mutilation on women and children, examined through the life story of victims of such mutilation. This research also hopes to spread awareness to mitigate the problem at hand and provide relief to countless women who undergo this ritual as a mark of womanhood.
By EMMA DRAKE, the USA
While women make up nearly half of the general workforce, they represent only a quarter of the STEM workforce (Beede et al. 2011). While there are undoubtedly many reasons for this bias, this research is looking to determine causes at the beginning of the path, in students, and their math and science development within this stage.
The Coevolution of Language and Technology: Does Language Play a Role in Shaping the Evolution of Humans?
By MEHDI BAQRI, Orlando, Florida, the USA
There is an apparent incompatibility between both ends of the spectrum concerning the study of language: both the strictly Darwinian framework as well as the strictly semiotic view assume language as either an exclusively biological or cultural phenomenon.
However, approaching language in one way or the other disregards its multifaceted nature. Rather, treating language as a composite biocultural complex interlaces the networks populating the biosphere with the threads tying together the semiosphere (Sinha 3; Markoš 312; Lotman 209). Situating language as an artifact within a biocultural niche enables its unification with a rigid evolutionary framework, thereby allowing for the elision of supposedly independent biological and cultural evolutions into a single co-evolutionary process (Sinha 3; Gong and Shuai 22). Language, then, can be understood as both a distinctive part of the biological human being and the foundational human social institution, and through analyzing the relationship between biology and culture within the context of language, one can determine the role of language in shaping the evolution of humans.
By VALERIE WU, USA
In the year 1954, an American plastic surgeon by the name of Ralph Millard entered the country of South Korea as part of the United States Marine Corps. With him, he brought decades of knowledge in the plastic surgery field, as well as a strong interest in the cosmetic potential of the Asian face--an interest that would quickly develop into a racial obsession.
Originally designed to treat victims who had been severely injured during the Korean War, plastic surgery was deemed as a medical necessity when it was first established in South Korea. With the assistance of Millard, the procedure soon became more aesthetically based.
By MAYA DRU, USA
In 1995, a New York high school dropout decided to name her baby daughter Tempestt after her favorite actress, Tempestt Bledsoe. She misspelled the name on the birth certificate, and girl entered the world as Temptress. At fifteen, Temptress had lived up to her namesake, becoming rebellious and sexually promiscuous. At her juvie sentencing, Judge Duggan asked her mother, “Is poor Temptress just living up to the expectations of her name?” (Spurlock) Names are a form of language, but are they deterministic in determining someone’s future? The plight of Temptress begs the question: how much will a child’s first name influence his or her future socioeconomic status? First names are often social markers of race, but names on their own are not proven determinants of socioeconomic destiny.
By ANAYAT SEKHON, New Delhi, India
Crony capitalism is a phenomenon wherein the government colludes with market players and intervenes in an economy in their favour, by doling out grants, tax breaks, subsidies and other sops. This manipulation of market forces results in an “uneven playing ﬁeld”, reducing competition and stiﬂing innovation, in contravention to the guiding principles of free market capitalism wherein economic gains are solely merit-based. While market interventionism and monopolisation has been a characteristic feature of socialistic welfare states, capitalist economies are by no means bereft of oligopolies due to a myriad of factors—some are natural, such as the economies of scale—while others include weak or absent anti-trust legislation, regulatory capture and crony capitalism itself.
Delaware Detox: Lessons From Our Past and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Delaware River Basin Today
By MICHAEL CHENG, USA
Finalist, 2016 MIT INSPIRE Competition in the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences (History Category)
By S. MANAS BHARADWAAJ, Chennai, India
KS Research Institute - Mylapore, Chennai, 600004
Image Courtesy: Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Chennai, French Institute, Pondicherry, Kuppuswami
Research Institute, Chennai and Pulavar Chockalingam, Tanjore
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