By MARCO KLEIMANS, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Mentor: Alexander Roslyakov (Ph.D., Sociology)
Acknowledgment: Ms. Argine Safari (Pascack Valley High School Hillsdale, New Jersey, USA) for help in the arrangement of field surveys in the USA
By ASHWIN SIVAKUMAR, Bangalore, India
Abstract: In this paper, the author describes various new and easier methods for finding the gap between two consecutive square numbers.
By ARPAN SAHOO, JONATHAN SHEN, DARREL D’SOUZA, JOHN REZK, Morganville, USA
Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affects movement (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). Current solutions include surgical therapy or medications, but these solutions are not fully effective. Our solution treats Parkinson’s at its source. Lewy bodies are clumps of alpha-synuclein common to Parkinson’s. Lewy bodies have been shown to cause neurons to die, impairing the nervous system ("Alpha-Synuclein and Parkinson's Disease"). Our solution uses the enzyme NEDD4, which degrades alpha-synuclein, in order to degrade the build-up and allow for recovery. To deliver NEDD4 to the alpha-synuclein, it will be attached to aptamers. Aptamers are RNA nanostructures that bind to specific targets by forming hydrogen bonds. The aptamer will be modified by adding polyethylene glycol (a high density polymer) so that the aptamer will not be affected by nuclease degradation and kidney filtration. By injecting a modified aptamer carrying NEDD4, alpha-synuclein will be destroyed, leading to an effective treatment of Parkinson’s.
Proving the Existence of Infinitely Many Quadruplets of Points that Form a Parallelogram on Every Smooth, Simple, Plane Curve
By DRIPTO BISWAS, Kolkata, India
In this article, I attempt a semi rigorous proof of a particular property of simple, closed, smooth plane curves. We consider a closed, simple, plane curve C(x,y) ε R^2, which is smooth and well-behaved. We shall prove that there exists infinitely many quadruplets (A,B,C,D) of points A,B,C,D which form a parallelogram. We shall also prove a claim, which shall show that these infinitely many parallelograms are found in infinitely many orientations as well.
By AHIT KAAN TARHAN, Istanbul, Turkey
Mentor: James Butterworth
Cleaning Soiled Hands: Will Alcohol based sanitizers rub soap away? A randomized blind trial on elementary school students
By SPANDAN SENGUPTA, Kolkata, India
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Mrs. Manjuli Mukherjee, Class teacher & Biology teacher at St James’ School; Ms. Amrita Nandy, Asst. Manager in Quality Assurance Dept., Apollo Gleneagles Hospitals, Kolkata; Ms. Shilpi Aurora Kundu, Regional Manager, Schülke India Ltd
By PRANAV JAIN, Pune, India
This paper serves to outline and describe a previously unexplored relationship between four “equidistant numbers”, a term that here means four numbers chosen such that each one is separated from the previous term by a constant numerical difference. The idea emerged from observing patterns within the number plates of cars, and has been generalized to encompass any 4 equidistant real numbers. The theorem states: “The absolute difference between the product of the first and last term, and the second and third term of a sequence of four equidistant real numbers is always equal to two times the numerical distance squared.” This paper proves the relationship for all real numbers. It was found that this relationship holds true for the set of real numbers.
This concept is related to Number Theory, the study of relationships of numbers. The primary method of proving the theorem is multi-dimensional induction.
Direct Reprogramming of Erythrocytes to Renal Nephron Cells Using Transcription Factor Combinations with the Implementation of Soluble Factors and Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Peptides Within the Respective Synthetic Scaffold
By SHIVAM AGARWAL and NABEEL QURYSHI, Pasadena, USA
The Relationship Between the Different Central Hexagons Formed by Odd/Even-secting the Lengths of Equilateral Triangles
By OSAMA HASAN MUSTAFA HASAN ABDALLA, Doha, Qatar
We shall come up with two formulae, one for odd and another for even, to calculate the maximum number of central hexagons that are formed by section-ing an equilateral triangle’s lengths equally into any given parity number and then connecting each of the sections made to their opposite vertex. We shall also construct several area-ratio generalizations between the different central hexagons and their triangle with use of the number of odd or even-sections made to the triangle. Finally, we shall make use of such generalizations to craft two final formulae that can calculate the area-ratio of any specified central hexagon in comparison to the triangle through which they are occupying, provided the number of odd or even-sections made is given.
1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary: 52C99, Secondary: 51M05 51M15 51D20
This paper may be accessed via Google Drive: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6fYIQxjoVuTMnQ3ckxvUWFzMDQ/view?usp=sharing
By DALIA, Kielce, Poland
Supervision: Dr Paul Hoff Backe & Prof Magnar Bjoras
Finalist of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (Intel ISEF); Issuer: Society for Science and the Public, May 2015
Finalist in The E(x)plory Scientific Competition 2015; Issuer: Fundacja Zaawansowanych Technologii, March 2015
The Talent of Swietokrzyskie, Marshal Office of the Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship, October 2014
Let's Talk about [X] Multidisciplinary Student Research Conference - University of Glasgow, February 2015
By MARY MARKATOU, Kefalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece
By MIN CHAN-HONG, Seoul, South Korea
The paper discusses the calculation of the products of gamma values. The paper will start from proving basic identities related to this special function, and then use the identities as tools to start formulating products such as gamma(1/n)*gamma (2/n)*gamma (3/n)*...*gamma ((n-1)/n).
The proposed method of agriculture as in this paperwork uses bio-degradable plastics in agriculture and is aimed at increasing agricultural productivity by 37.5% per annum while simultaneously reducing the total water input for agriculture by 65% per annum making it a highly appropriate option for sustainable development which is as well very practical and economically viable. The proposed method is also intended at reducing the time interval between two successive crop plantations so as to improve efficiency by development of manure, which can result in reduction in usage of chemical fertilizers, ultimately reducing bio-magnification.
By MING ZHANG, Guangzhou, China
Pioneer Research Program, 2015
Professor Jagmeet Kanwal
Adolescence is characterized by impulsive and risky decision making. Considering that the brain continues to develop throughout adolescence, the author of this paper hypothesized before researching on the topic that different developmental paces of different brain regions cause risky decision making in adolescence, which are exacerbated by stress and sleep patterns in this period. During research, it is found that the prefrontal cortex, a brain region associated with cognitive functions, is less developed in adolescence than the striatum and amygdala, which play important roles in reward and emotion processing...(continued)
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