Authors : Ma Xiaoxiao and Hang Yizhou
Hwa Chong Institution, Singapore
Place cells are hippocampal neurons that fire at a high rate whenever the animal is in a specific location in the environment. In previous studies, the existence of place cells of rodents is widely proved. However, there are few researches regarding place cells found in human and non-human primates. To elucidate whether primates have place cells and how these cells work, we examined the macaques’ navigation behaviour and hippocampal activities as they searched a virtual reality maze for a reward. Through processing and analysing the data, our findings confirm the existence of place cells in non-human primates. This discovery sheds light on both the field of neuroscience and medicine, paving the way to understanding and even curing previously irreversible cognitive diseases.
Author : Arnav Kapoor
DPS RK Puram, New Delhi, India
In the modern world, light pollution has grown to become an increasingly serious issue, affecting the lives of plants and animals alike in major ways by altering their circadian rhythms. The purpose of the study was to find correlations between the amount of a nation’s population affected by light pollution and demographic factors of that population. Through a quantitative approach, the research study sought to examine the impact of the following factors — population density, per capita income, literacy rate, forest cover, urbanisation — on the artificial brightness of an area. A regression analysis was conducted on the data for 178 United Nations Recognized Countries. The study found that the percentage of urban population and GDP per capita had a statistically significant impact on light pollution: the greater the percentage of urban population and the GDP per capita the more light pollution there was, at the probability level of p<.01. It was also found that in Indian cities, light pollution decreased with an increase in literacy rate, showing that education and awareness needs to be brought to the field. The results of this research study shows that human activity, particularly in the urban sector, exerts a strong impact on light pollution. Therefore, smart lighting, pollution-efficient lights, and streetlamps, etc. should be considered in urban planning and city design so that they can be implemented on a wide scale. This not only reduces light pollution, but also reduces energy consumption, thereby providing an economic incentive to prevent light pollution.
Choice or Imposition? Factors that Influence the Receptivity of the Elderly in Lucknow Towards Staying at Senior-Living Homes
Author : Mahi Agarwal
The International school Bangalore
In an increasingly urbanized society of India, the phenomenon of the elderly spending their twilight years in senior-living homes is gradually becoming more prevalent in big cities like Delhi and Mumbai. A senior living home is a home for elderly people where they are provided all the amenities they may need to stay healthy and comfortable. Urbanised in the context of Indian cities means that the city is much more technologically and socially advanced than the rest. This trend has concomitantly been accompanied by the rise in the number of such institutions to meet the demand. Hence, the present research study focuses on whether a trend was also representative of other parts of India by conducting an online survey among 70 elderly citizens of Lucknow, belonging to the age group of 65 years and more living in urban/rural areas of Lucknow. Besides this, interviews were conducted with few respondents to generate more in-depth knowledge of the topic Thematic analysis revealed sociocultural characteristics, factors specific to Lucknow. Nonetheless, the study shows that the reluctance of Lucknow elderly to stay at senior-living homes may be a situation that could change in the not-too-distant future. With the convergence of their aging and the movement of social trends away from joint families and home-based care services, the elderly in Lucknow may have to prepare themselves for the prospect of living in these institutions. A social trend is a term used to describe events that society as a whole follows or considers correct. Senior-living home industries and policymakers in Lucknow could benefit from the current study to enhance the quantity and quality of these homes to make them an attractive alternative for the elderly to want to move there.
Authors : Emily Gao , Durham Academy: 3601 Ridge Road, Durham, NC 27705
Matthew Lu , Chapel Hill High School: 9217 Seawell School Rd, Chapel Hill, NC 27516
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused global lockdowns and social distancing, which have greatly changed people’s life styles and overall health. We are interested to explore how this has affected adolescences’ dental health. Our study used an online survey for US students aged 10-18 to examine the pandemic’s impacts on eating habits, dental homecare, and dental visits. Wilcoxon two-sample and Chi-square tests were performed to compare the variables between students who kept routine dental checkups during the pandemic with those who did not. Using a logistic regression model, we also explored whether fear level of COIVD-19 and family cultural background associate with dental visit decisions. We found that 54.7% of respondents have increased snack consumption due to the pandemic. About 19.1% have increased supplemental intake. Among all supplements, the major form was gummy (60.4%). For dental homecare, 21.0% reported less seriousness, and 64.7% reported the same level of seriousness. Routine dental visits during the pandemic have decreased. Students with greater fear levels and non-US cultural backgrounds tended not to visit the dentist during the pandemic compared to students with lower fear levels and US cultural backgrounds (Ps < 0.01). Our results suggest that the pandemic has had an overall negative impact on the dental health of US students, associated with increased fear levels and a non-US cultural background. Dental care providers should be more proactive in providing dental health education and consider cultural backgrounds. Mental health counseling may also be helpful to maintain dental visits by minimizing fear levels.
Good News Or Bad News? An Empirical Analysis Of License Quota Policy’s Impact On China’s Auto Market
Authors : Mingyuan Xu, Zhiqi Zhou, Junyi Luo
Nanjing Foreign Language School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PRC
More and more Chinese households are willing and able to purchase their private automobiles. However, the continuous growth in auto ownership causes many problems, which makes municipalities adopt multiple policies to restrain car usage. One of these policies is the vehicle license quota, including license lottery and license auction. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive analysis of quota policy’s influence on the auto market from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. We find that there exists a structural impact on auto sales that Chinese self-owned brands benefit from quota policy while joint and imported brands are hurt by it. This paper also explores the difference of impact between two popular quota policies of lottery and auction. A lower lottery rate boosts the market share of self-owned brands but undermines joint and imported brands. Higher auction prices have a similar influence except that it has no impact on imported brands. Besides quota policies, we also discuss the influences of other factors such as income and public transportation in the empirical analysis.
India’s New Asset-class: Evaluation of the Importance of Different Factors in Determining the "Value" of Sneakers in India
Author : Vasuman Vij
K.R Mangalam World School, Gk-2, New Delhi
Over the past decade, there has been a sharp spike in the demand for sneakers in India, also classifying it as the country’s new asset class. A $351 Billion industry worldwide and contributing to over 2 per cent of the country’s GDP the industry is growing at an exponential rate. Because of the high growth rate and lack of theoretical knowledge about investing in the new industry the sneaker reselling market in India has become volatile. People tend to succumb to irrationality and undervalue the sneakers, also known as undercutting, leading to an overall fall in the market value and less profit for the other retailers carrying out their operations in the market. This research study aimed to evaluate the importance of different factors that determine these sneakers’ market value. Out of the 5 factors examined, the study found stock numbers to be the highest-rated factor amongst all 4 categories of respondents- Sneakerhead, reseller, hype beast, plug - determining the value of sneakers. After stock numbers, a close second will be the influence of a famous personality and silhouette type with a mean of 8.4 which is not that far away from stock numbers with a solid mean of 8.9. All the data and rating provides rationale with the fact that basic economics does operate in the sneaker industry since the mean ratings are all above 8.2 showing significance of all 5 factors. Being a consumer good as well, the economic price (The price a consumer will be willing to pay according to the value consumer can find in the consumable good/service) needs to be taken into consideration. The data collected via the survey covered this dimension as well, by studying the tangible variables like colour and silhouette. Preferred by more than 5o per cent of the sample primary and dark colours like red, blue and black are preferred over the others with the preferred sneaker silhouette being Air Jordan 1 Highs. This stands to be statistically significant with a p-value of 0.001 and thus can be used in market operations by new investors in the industry and upcoming resellers who have recently started reselling. This will prevent any further volatility and the operations will be much easier in a competitive market with bigger margins
Author : Alexa N. Morgan
Buchholz High School, Gainesville, Florida, US
Color psychology has been mainly researched for its stimulus in regards to marketing and emotions. This study found a notable lack of research regarding color’s stimulation of mental activity. Consequently, the problem at hand is determining color stimuli’s effect on test scores regarding logistical performance. The goals of this study are finding how environmental factors, such as color, may stimulate the brain. Using a true experimental design, the study manipulated the single variable: color stimulants (these are green, red, white, and blue). This method provided valuable information in that green is a significantly superior stimulant than red, blue, or white. Therefore, it would be beneficial to student learning if classroom environments utilized green color stimulants, and avoided red color stimulants. Furthermore, this idea that color can stimulate mental activity is beneficial for the development of color therapy.
Author : Samyak Jain
The aim of this study is to explore the extent to which methods of parenting affect the quality of parent-teen relationships, with a special focus on the development of stress-related mental health issues in Indian teens. The approach will be a qualitative one, involving the use of open-ended questions and semi-structured interviews to elicit subjective feedback. This approach was taken to encourage responses about parenting expectations as well as parenting realities. A close reading of their responses reveals that teens experience a lack of freedom and agency in their households that has a negative impact on their relationship with their parents. The paper explores both the causes of Indian parenting methods and the effects it has on teenagers. These include both negative impacts on their mental health as well as irregular or rebellious behavior. It concludes with a set of informed suggestions for parents to improve communication and to have a more open, gen-z centered approach to parenting.
Author : Arin Baswana
Scottish High International School, Gurugram
Asia, in its prioritisation on economic development over the environment, has some of the most polluted countries in the world. At the same time, there are other Asian countries, particularly Japan, that have made the effort to address the effects of economic development on the environment. The aim of this research study was to conduct a comparative case study analysis of the phenomenon of air pollution in Asia by analysing the air quality data of 24 different countries across three different years, as measured by the Air Quality Index (AQI). These Asian countries were divided into good air quality and poor air quality countries to capture the extent of the disparity of their experience of air pollution. A two-way ANOVA without replication was used to analyse the data to compare the main effects of AQI between the two categories of countries (good and bad air quality). Finally, there was no interactive effect between air quality and the year. The potential reasons were discussed in detail for the level average AQI of these countries throughout the 3 years. These findings gave us clear statistics of the Air Quality in the different regions of the continent. A qualitative analysis of how a sampling of Asian countries had been addressing three specific areas of air pollution—power generation, waste management, and public transport—offers insights as to the underlying discrepancies between the AQI of the good and poor air quality countries. The measures implemented by good air quality countries can provide insights as to how poor air quality Asian countries could be improving their management of these areas.
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Author : Stefano C. Chiampo
United World College of South East Asia, Singapore.
Anthropogenic climate change is starting to have a greater negative influence on habitats and species, so we need to find new methods to engage humans in saving our planet. In this research paper, the theory of biophilia is explored and methods for promoting marine conservation are tested through video stimuli. The aim of this study is to explore how a video stimulus of animal interaction could result in engagement with conservation. This was achieved through the use of a questionnaire that gauged qualitative and quantitative reactions of participants to a video stimulus. Respondents ranked their connection with the environment as well as their level of motivation for saving the environment, after watching video of human-animal interaction, participants were asked similar questions. These changes, as well as qualitative responses of watching the video were analysed to see if any change in attitude was evident. In qualitative analysis, it was noticed that many respondents expressed a desire to ‘protect our oceans’ after exposure to the video stimulus. Others expressed an attachment to octopus – the animal presented in the video. On scales of one to ten, participants initially responded high, and that was maintained after the video as well. With these findings we can start making informed choices about our methods for outreach; will a video incite a strong enough connection between humans and animals that they start aiding in conservation efforts?
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