By MARGARET HEINZ, East Dundee, Illinois, the USA
The Effects of Europe’s Commercial Expansion into the Indian Ocean on Asian and African Coastal Economies: 1600-1650
By JOHANNES LANG, Vienna, Austria
Mentor: Ruth Schabauer (Department of English, Neulandschule Grinzing)
This work examines the impact of Europeans’ commercial expansion into the Indian Ocean on the local Asian and African economies between 1600 and 1650. By studying this historically important period of time, we can also gain a deeper understanding of modern globalization and of Europe’s continuing political and economic influence today. The different consequences for the various regions bordering the Indian Ocean are compared, contrasted, and evaluated. For my research I use primarily books and articles but also rely on the analysis of economic data. Epic poems from Mughal writers as well as modern studies are included so that the reader may gain thorough insights into the topic. As I try to tell history from an Afro-Asian perspective, I let both 17th century and contemporary voices native to the Indian Ocean have their say.
I conclude in my study that the consequences of trade with the Europeans differed greatly between the heterogeneous regions. The nature of these consequences depended on the socioeconomic structure as well as on the environmental particularities of the regions in question. Some economies profited from the new situation; others suffered from the altered trade system. Interestingly, many effects of 17th century globalization, such as increased competition with countries far away and a heightened reliance on foreign trade, are visible also in today’s process of globalization.
By ANJALI BHAVAN, New Delhi, India
Worldwide, millions of women are subjected to the practice of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) every year, every month, every day. This practice of cutting up female genitalia for a variety of reasons either around birth or puberty violates child and women rights to their very core and has consequences, both immediate and long-term, on the mental, physical and emotional health and well-being of many women across the world—even claiming the lives of many women and children, who die from the pain or subsequent onset of sepsis or reproductive illnesses. Such mutilation is steeped in tradition, religion and culture, often attributed to religion and performed as a rite of purification, and this superstition is passed on for generations, thus perpetrating a vicious cycle. This research aims to assess this practice—that is, delve on its history, both social and cultural, the current scenario and the impact of such mutilation on women and children, examined through the life story of victims of such mutilation. This research also hopes to spread awareness to mitigate the problem at hand and provide relief to countless women who undergo this ritual as a mark of womanhood.
The proposed method of agriculture as in this paperwork uses bio-degradable plastics in agriculture and is aimed at increasing agricultural productivity by 37.5% per annum while simultaneously reducing the total water input for agriculture by 65% per annum making it a highly appropriate option for sustainable development which is as well very practical and economically viable. The proposed method is also intended at reducing the time interval between two successive crop plantations so as to improve efficiency by development of manure, which can result in reduction in usage of chemical fertilizers, ultimately reducing bio-magnification.
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